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The dataset contains 71 records of Plecoptera specimens collected from 2004 to 2018 in the Iberian Peninsula (Ferreira et al., 2020). Twenty-nine stoneflies species are represented in the dataset, contributing to the knowledge on the DNA barcodes and distribution of the Plecoptera in Iberia. Specimens were captured during fieldwork directed specifically for the sampling of Plecoptera using different methodologies and stored in 96% ethanol. All specimens were morphologically identified to species level. A tissue sample, usually a leg, was collected from each individual, from which DNA was extracted. The DNA barcoding of these specimens was conducted within the InBIO Barcoding Initiative (IBI), funded by EnvMetaGen and PORBIOTA projects. DNA barcode sequences were deposited in BOLD (Barcode of Life Data System) online database. Preserved specimens and DNA extracts are deposited in the IBI collection at the CIBIO (Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources).