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  • The Balaton LTSER Platform is dedicated to the study of the largest shallow lake in Eastern Europe, situated in the mid-western part of Hungary. The site, which is a popular holiday resort, consists of the lake and its watershed. Lake Balaton went through considerable changes in trophic state during the past decades. After a period of anthropogenic eutrophication from the late 1960s until the mid '90s, restoration measures aimed at reducing the nutrient load reaching the lake led to gradual reoligotrophication. The Balaton Limnological Institute of the MTA Centre for Ecological Research, situated on the Tihany peninsula, had an important role in improving the water quality and the ecological status of the lake by providing sound scientific knowledge for the decision-makers and the general public.

  • The LTSER Zone Atelier Seine belongs to LTER-France network and is located in Seine River Basin. The ZA Seine general aim is the study of a whole region. How its inhabitants construct the aquatic environment, as well as the quality of surface- and ground-waters may be seen as the dominant scientific question. The question is posed at various scales in space (from sub-catchments to the whole basin), and in time (from historical analysis starting in the Middle-Age to prospective studies for the next century).

  • The LTSER Zone Atelier Armorique belongs to LTER-France network and is located in nord westen France. The ZA Armorique conducts an interdisciplinary exploration of landscapes from urban areas to rural countryside, integrating social and environmental dynamics.

  • The LTSER Zone Atelier Brest Iroise, created in 2012, is located in Brittany, NW-France. It aims at understanding the functioning and the long-term dynamics of the social-ecological system located along the land-ocean continuum. It combines work along different gradients and at different interfaces: between Earth compartments (sediment-water-atmosphere, land-ocean), tools (observation, experimentation, modeling), disciplines (especially between natural and human and social sciences) and between science and society. About half of the area (3000 km2) is terrestrial, including the watersheds of the Elorn (280 km2, 285,000 inhabitants mostly in the Brest area) and the Aulne (1820 km2, 70,000 inhabitants) rivers which are characterized by intensive agricultural practices. The Bay of Brest is a semi-enclosed coastal Bay, with an area of 180 km2. Part of this Bay and of the Aulne estuary is a Natura 2000 site, operated by the “Parc Naturel Regional d’Armorique” (PNRA). The marine part (3550 km2) of this land-ocean continuum is the Iroise Sea, comprising beaches, the continental shelf, the Sein Island and the Molène-Ouessant archipelago. This area corresponds to the limits of the first marine natural protected area created in France in 2007 (the “Parc Naturel Marin d’Iroise”, PNMI). This area presents exceptional natural and human heritage, including a rich marine biodiversity, human traditions and emblematic activities (e.g. great Scallop fishing).

  • The HMA-LTSER focuses on the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, comprising of the most urbanised part of Finland from the capital city of Helsinki to the city of Lahti 100 km North-East. Monitoring and research on long-term ecological and socio-economic phenomena are carried out by different departments at the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University of Technology under the Urban Studies Network. The cities of Espoo, Helsinki, Lahti and Vantaa, as the network partners, contribute to the LTSER by offering data for research, as well as applying research outputs in planning, policy-making and civic activities. Each of the Urban Studies partner has wide experience in its own field (urban ecosystem studies, urban ecology, urban geography, urban economics, urban sociology etc.), but the HMA-LTSER is a new approach to establish a joint long-term research environment for selected urban sites and themes. The climate data presented here is based on Normal period of 1981-2010 in Helsinki.