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    The dataset contains 144 records of Mantis (Mantodea) species collected from 2006 to 2019 in continental Portugal. All captured specimens were identified to species level, belonging to nine of the twelve species of Mantodea present in Portugal. Specimens were detected and captured by direct search of the environment and by using both UV and mercury-vapor lamps to attract the insects. Captured specimens were preserved in 96% ethanol. From each specimen one leg (tissue sample) was removed to be used for DNA extraction. Samples of each species were selected for DNA sequencing based on their geographic provenance. Sequencing of the 658 bp COI DNA barcode was conducted within the InBIO Barcoding Initiative (IBI) and all DNA sequences were submitted to BOLD (Barcode of Life Data System) database. All specimens and DNA extracts are deposited in the IBI collection at the CIBIO (Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources).